Impact of Armed violence on Trade and investment ,challenges and Parliamentary solutions:
Dr. E. M. Sudarsana Natchiappan M.P
The world awakened in 2001 after 9/11 happening in USA and realised the terrorism and it’s effect on humanity and the sufferings of the Nation State. The security council passed the resolution 1373 (2002) 28th September 2001, by which the duty of every Nation to curb the terrorism and duty of them to help the terrorist affected Nations.
‘Reaffirming the need to combat by all means , in accordance with Charter of The United Nations, threats to international peace and security caused by terrorists acts’
Subsequent to this resolution and many more guiding resolutions of the security council, constructive steps were taken by the Nation States by enacting law and enforcing them in this aspect .The International Human rights commission took various steps to protect the interest of people who face violation of human rights and humanitarian Laws, during the arms conflict to counter terrorism. Sri Lanka, an example of a rich heritage of social,economical and cultural society living together attracting huge investment and trade had suffered due to terrorism for more than three decades. This has affected the trade and investment of the southern districts of Tamilnadu in India as the neighbouring country .
The International Human Rights commission passed the resolution 60/251 of March 2006
“Urges International community to cooperate with the Government of Sri Lanka in the reconstruction efforts , including by increasing the provision of financial assistance , including Official development assistance, to help the country fight poverty and underdevelopment and to continue to ensure the promotion and protection of all human rights, including economic,social and cultural rights”
One can understand the need for restoring the peaceful life to the people in terrorist affected Nation State. Any citizen likes to have the liberty, equality and peaceful living rather than suffering and also prolonged suffering for decades . This prolonged suffering due to the armed conflict make the Nation vulnerable to poverty and loss of capability of potential life. The socio,economical,political, civic , and cultural rights of the different euthenics , religious, linguistic and social groups living in one Nation greatly affects . The society after the armed conflict suffer by the fear of earlier happenings and perennial doubt on the security of living with lurking fear of repetition. The natural wealth and assets of the Nation were subjected to destruction.The infrastructure such as roads, railway line, sea ports and Air ports,the houses , community centres, schools, Hospitals religious centres namely Temple, Church, Mosque , Buddhist Mutts were also subjected to destruction . Agricultural lands , irrigation tanks factories ,work shops , Markets, shops were destroyed and planted with mines. It is a war on the Nation but having no rule of the game while raising the most sensitive issues through arms and ammunitions.
Restoration and Rehabilitation :
The restoration and rehabilitation of the citizens are most immediate and formidable job in hands of the democratic Government . But it has to be realised that the Government can not do this big task by themselves . It is the duty of all Nations , NGO’s and Global civil societies which should take up the work voluntarily. When the UN security council and International Human rights commission and other International organisations were interested to eradicate terrorism through out the world it has an obligation , not for the individual Nation alone but for the whole community of Human society to participate in mobilising funds, material , human resources and time bound strategy to bring back the peaceful living and lively hood to the people. More so the Government which has ended the terrorism is to get continued support by taking steps to identify the sympathisers of terrorist movement and reform them to realise the liberty, equality and peaceful living . It can be achieved only by democratic means. Now one can find that the many of the developed countries allow the sympathisers to enjoy equal status in their country and leave them free to mobilise and propagate the terrorism with out any hurdle but just on the ground of human rights. Here is the duty of developed countries to realise that unless the sympathisers are not reformed the danger of terrorism is in their bosom itself by passive permission and nurturing. There is no guarantee that the sympathisers will not test their efficiency on ground before transporting to their homeland. The genesis of evil and remedy:The United Nations and all International bodies should realise the reason for terrorism. It is nothing but denial of Human rights enshrined in the United Nations International declaration of Human rights. If it is so, it is the duty of the United Nations to see that the Government and forces who remain sympathisers are starting their dialogue and realise their duties in democratic environment . If the United Nations and security council have not taken such steps to bring the interested parties to sit across the table with Government and resolve their issues by peaceful discussion ,the fear of repetition makes most of the Governments and defeated elements to procure and store the arms and ammunitions blaming each other. Unless both the parties sit together on development agenda they will fallback to the squire one which will make arms race further intensified. Now the question is whether the Government and ‘sympathisers ‘ , are really worried about the people affected , displaced, maimed, disabled and widowed who are also having the protection under the Declaration of human rights to live peacefully in their homeland .These citizens are undergoing perennial pain and suffering because of the arms race between the government and sympathisers.This arms race falsely create a feeling that it is for the security of the people and citizen. But in all practical purposes it perpetuates the tension , suspicion and nourishes the negative attitudes among the people. The very confidence of citizenry is taken away by the longevity of such situation. On the other hand the Government and United Nations should formulate such a strategy by which the people are involved on reconstruction, reconciliation and peace building by the investment of more money in building the wealth and assets through employment, skill development, wealth creation through agricultural and industrial production and service industry .The social , economical and cultural emancipation can rebuild confidence and fearless society .
The living models of reconciliation and rehabilitation:
When I prepare this speech I happened to be in Germany and more specifically in Berlin and Dresden cities . These two cities are specific models of reconciliation and peaceful development of the destroyed society due to the world war and false pretence of governments by arms race as the security of the Nation for decades. Finally the restoration – rehabilitation has been achieved by the people through contribution of another part of the unified Nation, European Union and world at large. One can see the model of proud peace of reconciliation and reconstruction of old stones and new stones in construction of two churches of catholic and Protestant . This shows the proudness of Germans by rehabilitation, reconciliation and reconstruction through the means of catholicity and remain protestant to ‘arms race’ . The reconstruction of a Nation after world war has created the capacity building and reconciliation by the same forces that made them divided. This is the greatness of the later part of nineteenth century and twentieth century. This twenty first century is in clear move with all dynamism in the removal of military dictatorship through the means of democratic process of upsurge and mass movement .Now every Nation state wants to have peaceful reconstruction , reconciliation and rehabilitation through development which is the real security of a Nation. No more the theory that ‘ military forces are the protector of society and Nation’ , is accepted by the world citizens. No more arms are the tool of dignity and integrity but the ‘development’ is the best tool to achieve dignity and integrity of a Nation State among comity of Nations.
Impact on Trade and Investment :
There are many studies by world Bank and research organisations that the trade and investment are the first casualty of beginning of armed violence. The fear of loosing the capital , goods ,assets, and investment are real issues to be considered. Such risk cannot be taken by any business men or traders.The available infrastructure will also becomes the target of terrorists.That made the nation poor and economic valuation of a country down graded for developmental opportunities.The States are also feeling that if their security forces are strengthened it will attract the trade and investment. It is not the way the traders and investors think about it. They think that unless there is reconciliation and reconstruction of the society the security forces in and around the traders and investors are not favourable to them. The other important thing for the consideration of the Nation State is to attract the the refugees who have gone away from the country due to armed struggle , to come back to to home land. For this the government should create an environment that the people who flee away and well settled in the hosting state should feel that their skill, merit and investment will be used by the home land by the clear policy of trade and investment . This environment has to be created by legitimate government by making the well structured plan of action to restore the property and assets of the refugees who left it while leaving the original places.These approaches are not new . It were well applied in countries like Germany by full participation of Government , Financial Institutions, civil Society , private sector and NGO’s. The Dutch Bank ,in Germany had made such role to reconstruct the society including churches which were destroyed to ground in armed conflict. Following European Model such as French and Germany the Chinese- Japanese strategic reconciliation on economic relations due to geographical advantages and strong economic complementarity the economic and trade relations has created economic growth and stability.
The agriculturists can produce only when the land mines were removed. Traders can do the business if their markets were refurbished. Investors can bring money,and technology where there is skilled people. These cannot be achieved by Police and armed soldiers escorting the business centres. Many of the government feel if the security is given the trade and investment will be attracted towards that Nation. It is pretentious way of governance and keep the Nation poor and thrive on the victories of terrorism. The budget of the government should show more allocation for development rather than on the Defence expenditure .
Relevancy of Arms Trade Treaty:
The mind of modern world citizens are to have peace and development in day today life. The world political decisions are also recognising the change on the humanity. The military dictatorship gradually vanishes and it is replaced by liberal democracy. People are thinking the Environment security. Conventional energy sources and nuclear energy are replaced by non conventional energy which are available in plenty in the nature. The trade war replaces the conventional armed conflicts. The exhibition of armouries and parade of weapons are vulgar display one Nation’s strength. The power and the strength of the Nation State, is now measured by the knowledge power of the Nation in building passive society. Now the rulers of the nation and the Parliaments in democratic Nations have to respond to the change of human expectation. Hence the Arms Trade treaty prep meeting February , 2012 is to carry these messages . Our Members of Parliament for Global Action have to come out with ‘Colombo declaration ‘ that the end of armed conflict and beginning of world peace , reconciliation, and rehabilitation of victims of armed conflicts and reconstruction of Nation States by co operation and co ordination of the citizens of the World for achieving goal of Human rights for Global Developmental .