Who is the master of universe In international Law ?

Many used to claim as InternationaI law is the evolution of European thought as the necessity for better relations with neighbourhood countries and sovereign states . Which was not acceptable as very often Prof R.P.Anand proved through his well placed argument. International law expanded geographically and occupied not only entire globe but also space, celestial bodies too. This is the historical evolution.But India had recognised the Universality of law controlling the globe and celestial bodies too. It recognised in the early part of world known civilisation that the human relation with the celestial bodies and regulation of each other through proved documentation ,empirical datas, formula, statistics, experiences,precedence and proves in scientifically acceptable terms. Indian saints and practitioners felt that the knowledge is directly given by divine power which controls and regulates every minute parts of atom to mega maximums by application of these resources. But the modern evolution of International law started from neighbourhood relations to sovereign countries relations by experiences and abstract material needs and demands on the occurrences of historical evidences and consequences of incidences and events. The need for Space law gives new dimention during the later part of 20 th Century in the decade of nuclear war threat.

‘The treaty’s principal drafters, the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., were primarily concerned with nuclear weapons when they met in 1967 at the United Nations; Article IV of the treaty prohibits military installations and weapons of mass destruction from being placed in orbit or on other worlds. Further stipulations guarantee freedom of access to all nations, ban territorial claims and promote scientific cooperation. Above all, the treaty was designed to ensure that space exploration occur peacefully and for the benefit of all mankind.’

The dawn of 21 st century bring new vision and need for developed nations to think on commercial market economy terms , to earn profit even through the space expeditions . As the article in

“Who’s in Charge of Outer Space?”

By Adam Mann. The Wall Street Journal. 19 May 2017

‘The U.S. has adopted the latter interpretation of the treaty, along with Luxembourg, which hopes to become a hub of space commerce, and the United Arab Emirates, which is currently completing its own domestic space laws to allow asteroid mining. If enough countries take a similar stance, this reading could become customary international law. All eyes are now on China, which took a more equivocal stance during the U.N. meeting in March, saying that space-faring nations “should strike a balance between the freedom of utilization and the equitable sharing of benefits.” At the conclusion of the meeting, the U.N. committee elected to hold off on any decisions and revisit the issue in 2018.

‘Everything that happens in space falls under the purview of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. This international agreement, also known as the Outer Space Treaty, turned 50 years old in January. More than 100 countries, including the U.S., Russia and China, are parties to the treaty. “It’s the Constitution and the Magna Carta of space law,” says Sagi Kfir, general counsel for Deep Space Industries, an asteroid-mining company based in Mountain View, Calif. “It’s so fundamental that its principles have become customary international law even for those countries that aren’t signatories.”

‘In February, Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo passed its third glide-flight test, putting it on pace to offer suborbital space tourism by the end of 2018. In March, Goldman Sachs announced to investors that a single asteroid containing $25 billion to $50 billion of platinum could be mined by a spacecraft costing only $2.6 billion—less than a third of what has been invested in Uber.’

The commercial exploitation of celestial bodies are now accepted by domestic law in USA by the President Obama.

‘One of the biggest modern-day sticking points stems from Article VI, which states that nongovernmental entities—i.e. private businesses—must receive “authorization and continuing supervision” from their country of origin. Article VI was originally a compromise between the communist Soviets, who wanted to ban off-planet commercial activity, and the Americans, who insisted that space be open for business’

Whether India will play a crucial role in this treaty formulation so that Chandrayaan II will be part of of our effort of proving the ancient knowledge of India used and justified of “Make in India”.

Dr E M Sudarsana Natchiappan

Sr Advocate , Supreme Court of India

3F, White House, 10 Bhagwan Das Road,

New Delhi 110001

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International School for 21st Century in Sivagangai Tamilnadu

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International Schools in 21st Century

21st Century International Schools Prospectus

Introduction :

Our 21st Century International Schools are run by Charitable Trust and Managed by Trustees from 1987 , thirteen years before the advent of 21 st Century on the vision of Shri Rajiv Gandhi . Along with Smt Sonia Gandhi he visited the School in 1989 in Sholapuram . It became model school for others in the District and State . Following that many individuals were motivated to start the school in the level of HIgh School and Higher Secondary school .But the culture of 21st Century International School is maintaining the slogan “ STUDENT FIRST” and 100% learning and 100% result – from LKG to XII , including Tamil, English, Hindi and Teacher Training .

AIM OF OUR SCHOOL
School Management is constructing the Schools with definite Institutional Goal of sculpturing the students in flesh and blood to be best citizens of Tamilnadu ,India and Globe (United Nations) .

Albert Einstein Energy Theory :
It can happen when the Student and Staff have Realisation of their inner power, energy , and activating the energy chakras numbering seven inside the human body . Nobel Laureate Einstein’s mass energy equivalence theory of Energy (E =mc2) is secret of this energy which is th 21st Century International school system of education .

PREPARATION OF LESSON PLAN ;
Teachers and supervising staffs ,faculties and all staffs should prepare themselves through well planed Lesson Plan stretched for an hour per lesson to Manage every class according to their syllabus using Teacher Writing Board , digital (smart class and vedio conference) and other tools to enhance the learning process with pleasure and joy .

STUDENTS LEARNING BY INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITY

The students are here to learn by their individual , group activities , interaction between peer and Teacher. The understanding of the lesson is not on the repetition but on the absorption capacity of individual students. The teachers are called as experienced not on the number of years they served as teacher but on the capacity to make the child to understand the lessons. Now the teaching method is not on the one sided preaching but on expression of involvement of the students to learn , understand and give the response by way of recollection and re presentation in an expected way. Hence it needs first to make the lesson acceptable and palatable to the student . From Nursery, Primary , Middle school the individual and group activities are learning process.

Public Examination Going Students Package :
In ninth standard onwards they have to prepare themselves fo individual learning which means Group learning and responding is to be unlearned for three consecutive years . It resembles that they have to prepare for track event in Sports from team game just like football or hockey and strengthen that individual management for Public Examination Going Students (PEGS)Package . This package is focused for individual performance assessed by unknown question setters and evaluators. It is a process getting recognition from known to unknown.

TEACHING CULTURE

Teaching is most divine and noble profession in humanity and development of civilisation. The Teachers should show their efficiency by their commitment, involvement by enjoying pleasure of teaching in simple understandable and responsive presentations.

Supervising staffs and staffs should get respect from the staffs, Parents and the students by their smiling radiant faces, behaviour , body language, acceptability of the job with joy and pleasure .

INNER MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOLS:
Management , Sr Principal, Principals , Incharge Heads, and Teachers have their defined role in action. Commonly it is their duty to witness the happening around and make a note of it and report to the. Founder/ Correspondent/ Secretary so that proper instructions can be given to the erring persons. The notes taken by these authorities are the record kept in confidentiality. They can not instruct , then and there. If that happens one cannot see the capacity to control the situation and evolutions of organic growth of Individual Faculty or student . It restricts the self learning and self correction for teacher or student .

On the other hand we used to think that the ‘respect’,comes through authority by way of immediate military command . That days are gone. We are living by the guidance of Constitution of India (1950).

Now every body is equal and knowledgeable. Suppose a Teacher has the counselling capacity and voluntarily asked by another person they can guide.

The new way of Management is that If one is well informed with sufficient data’s , they will analyse how the personnel management can be well calibrated in discussions as a team; without indicating individual in front of others which touches upon the self respect of individual and avoid accusations. The matter can be utilised for Management applicable to every body and for universal applicability.

The Information Technology and Class Management :

The class Management is the prime task of a Teacher and students. To work as a team rather than having giver and taker relationship . Hence 21 Century International school,Sivagangai makes it a divine exchange of learning as a team consisting of Teacher, Class Trinity Leaders Team and Students.

1. Let the class be a divine location to enhance the knowledge and understanding with Meditation and yoga by concentration of mind touching upon all 7 chakras inconsonance with deep breath inhaling and exhaling for three minutes(meditation).It gives energy and regenerate pleasure and joy of learning for Faculty and Student.

“I learn with pleasure and joy , and save it in my brain and cultivate the energy of recapitulation with presentation in written ,and oral format when ever it is needed. Energy in myself and in universe are always positive and dynamic and helps me for sustained Energy .”

நான் மிக்க மகிழ்ச்சியுடனும் ஆனந்தத்துடனும் பாடத்தினைக் கற்றுக்கொள்கிறேன்.நான் கற்றுக்கொள்பவை அனைத்தினையும் என்னுள்கொண்டு என்நினைவாற்றலில் பதிந்துகொள்வேன். அவற்றை எந்தநேரத்திலும் தேவைக்கு ஏற்ப திரும்ப எழுதிடவும் சொல்லிடவும் பேராற்றல் என்னுள் உள்ளது. என்னிலும் என்னைச்சுற்றிலும் அவ்வாற்றல் என்னை வலிமைப்படுத்துகிறது. என்னை என்றும் சிறப்பாக்குகிறது.

2. The classes will have the beginning of lesson on recapitulation of the earlier learning and bringing the thought input of earlier class on the subject.

3. Let the class aware what is today’s lesson on the vision. Brief introduction on salient points by board writing and note book writing. The models , vedio or smart class are the tools for quick understanding and improving memory power.

4.The chorus while the Teacher is working on board with voice is old system of learning as background response. It should not be allowed so that the peace full situation from students side allows recording of Teachers voice, Teacher’s Board writing and digital presentation in the brain of the student. The recapitulation will happen by following process:

4.1 Now let the student read one by one loudly and pleasantly the lines of Text book.

4.2 The “round table” starts by asking a team of three, to sit near the Teachers Table while Teacher sits away to view all in the class room and board used by the student ; by locating the place for sitting in Teachers chair, and watch the performance of students.

4.3 Finally rapid questioning and summing up is the process of memorising the points in lesson.

The Teacher should end with

“I learned with pleasure and joy and saved it in my brain and cultivate the energy of recapitulation with presentation in written ,and oral format when ever it is needed. Energy in myself and in universe are always positive and dynamic and helps me for sustained Energy .”

நான் மிக்க மகிழ்ச்சியுடனும் ஆனந்தத்துடனும் பாடத்தினைக் கற்றுக்கொள்கிறேன்.நான் கற்றுக்கொள்பவை அனைத்தினையும் என்னுள்கொண்டு என்நினைவாற்றலில் பதிந்துகொள்வேன். அவற்றை எந்தநேரத்திலும் தேவைக்கு ஏற்ப திரும்ப எழுதிடவும் சொல்லிடவும் பேராற்றல் என்னுள் உள்ளது. என்னிலும் என்னைச்சுற்றிலும் அவ்வாற்றல் என்னை வலிமைப்படுத்துகிறது. என்னை என்றும் சிறப்பாக்குகிறது.

With Good wishes the class is to continue for next session .

CONCLUSIONS

(பத்தழகு)
நன்நூல்

1.சுருங்கச் சொல்லல்
2.விளங்க வைத்தல்
3.நவின்றோர்க்கு இனிமை
4.நன்மொழி புணர்த்தல்
5.ஓசை யுடைமை
6.யாழம் உடைத் தாதல்
7.முறையின் வைப்பே
8.உலகமலையாமை
9.விழுமியது பயத்தல்
10.விளங்கு உதாரணத்தாகுதல்

Ten facets (Beuty) in writing of book applies for Teaching

1 .Short introduction (abstract)
2. Understandable explanation
3.Pleasant way of presentation
4.Presenting through appropriate language
5.Modulation in presentation
6.Using fine Instruments and tools for acquiring deep knowledge
7. Orderly presentation
8. Following intellectuals learning and road map . ( precedents)
9. Presenting the relevant subject
10.Giving practical examples to absorb the subject.

Conclusions

Human life is most precious to protect the cosmos. If the scientific system and intellectual learning of Indians and more specifically ancient Tamils the world will be a place of peace and prosperity. Let us unlearn 20th Century method of education and learn our own method which is in the formula of Albert Newton’s theory “ Energy “ . Student should understand and use ones energy for the development and prosperity in consonance with the Nature around them. Protect the Nature and learn from it should be the Moto to make “Student First” – by the learned staffs way of teaching . The goal to make a Student best citizen of World is the 21st Century Schools “யாதும் ஊரே யாவரும் கேளீர்”Dr EM SUDARSANA Natchiappan Founder of 21st Century International Schools

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North Korea and South Korea meets Great day for all of us

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UN convention on Fresh water and Indian Supreme Court

Cauvery water dispute and implementation of International Law

The Potential conflicts over trans boundary waters are to the tune of 300 major rivers basin covering about 50% of the total land area of the Earth. India is also facing many such water conflicts with the neighbour hood countries. Some are solved by bilateral treaty and and some more on Tribunal awards while some other are hotspot of diplomacy . Within India many disputes are settled by negotiations between states while dozens are resolved by formation a of Water sharing mechanism under Inter state water disputes Act and water Boards Act.

The international Law on the issue of fresh water, drainage basins, ground water and Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses proposed by the International Law Commission are evolving from the Helsinki Rules through International conventions , attempt of International Law Association for Campione Consolidation on the basis of customary international law travelled a long distance and brought out broader aspect of issues in Berlin rules (2004).

Berlin rule Article 1 says

“1. These Rules express international law applicable to the management of the waters of international drainage basins and applicable to all waters, as appropriate.

2. Nothing in these Rules affects rights or obligations created by treaty or special custom.

Article 2 further says

Implementation of These Rules

1. States shall, where appropriate, enact laws and regulations to accomplish the purposes set forth in these Rules and shall adopt efficient and adequate administrative measures, including management plans, and judicial procedures for the enforcement of these laws and regulations.”

Fortunately the Cauvery water Disputes Tribunal (2007) in its award extensively relied on different aspects of the international principle of fair and equitable distribution of water to various stake holders with the obligation of not to cause significant harm, developed from Helsinki rule(1966) leading to Berlin rule (2004). The Supreme Court of India in its famous and land mark judgment (2018) relied on the Tribunal finding but deviated on the “ ground water” issues which are even now a matter of many countries concern and hesitation of fully subscribe to UN General Assembly The Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, commonly referred to as the UN Watercourses Convention, is an international treaty, adopted by the United Nations on 21 May 1997, pertaining to the uses and conservation of all waters that cross international boundaries, including both surface and groundwater. “Mindful of increasing demands for water and the impact of human behaviour”, the UN drafted the document to help conserve and manage water resources for present and future generations. From the time of its drafting, the Convention took more than 17 years to enter into force on 17 August 2014 with signing of Vietnam to fulfil the need for minimum 36 signatories . Let us hope the Supreme Court land mark judgement on Cauvery water disputes case rectify in its future Judgments in other cases to further expand and apply the international Law as and when it evolves with majority of acceptance by the countries.

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Three tier system of Governance in India

The soul of Gram Rajya in Gandhi gram University, Dindukal, Tamilnadu

Ancient way of micro management as a social group in India is in the historical evidence . The Panchayat or five wise men were having all the modern governance as Executive, Legislative and Judicial functions as three in one system. King Chola period there were proof that these wise people were elected by the people by “cadjan “leaf-( palm leaf used to write ) and put into mud pot (vote box) to keep the confidentiality. But in many of the clan based villages it was ancestrally nominated by family representation. During British period they made it as Administrative body to collect revenue, maintain datas, and inform to the District Authorities and police on the annual reporting system of law and order and revenue record maintenance with judicial powers.

GANDHIJI’S DISCIPLE ‘GR’

Madras Village Panchayat Act 1920 was giving the statutory architecture. During the freedom struggle this system was changing their role after Gandhi ji explained the Gram Swaraj . As disciple of Gandhi ji Shri Ramachandran(Anna as we call) and Dr Soundaram Ramchandran , founder couple , of Gandhigram University made the scientific way of education and training the persons for managing the Villages in Administration, Public Finance, rural development , Village health and sanitary condition, village arts and crafts and Khadi and village Industries.The place fondly named ‘Gandhigram’ was inaugurated by the Father of our Nation Mahatma Gandhi on 7th October 1947 with a powerful message “Success Attends where Truth Reigns”. Since then, Gandhigram has been a hub of community development.

After achieving independence the Indian Government started to have importance of revival of grassroots democracy by way of enacting the law to have the local government. Madras Panchayat Act 1958 has given all encompassing powers giving full structure with clear demarcation of various local Administrative set up. The Madras Panchayat Act was further strengthened in Tamilnadu and trained people were managing the peoples body elected among the unimpeachable character and leadership . The Revenue Headman with Karnam (Manager) were looking after the District Revenue authorities while Panchayat President and Council for developmental aspect while Co operative societies as statutory body Tident of village development .

The First five year Plan and subsequent five year Plans had implanted many of developmental and financial programmes to Panchayat system including schools ,Hostels, old age homes, village Health Dispensaries were handled in this system.

RAJIV GANDHI DREAM OF THIRD TIER GOVERNANCE :

Having born and brought up in rural area I could recollect how I could connect with this system being a Lawyer in High Court in Madras coming down to Sivangangai district and worked 1972 to 1985, with villagers and as trainer for village people in the Tom Bewin Institute [ located in Gandhi Gram and Perambalur] , Rural workers Organisation and Indian National Rural Labour Federation. Hence I happened to contest in direct election as Chairman of Panchayat Union Sivagangai having 43 elected Panchayat Presidents and ward members for five years 1996-91.

As I was committed to Gandhian principles and Rajiv Gandhi’s dream of Panchayat Governance later made in Constitutional Amendment 76 and 78 as Three tier Governance (Union,State and District) I stoped practicing in courts for theses fives years and committed myself to implement the National Rural Employment Programmes, National Drought Area Development Programmes, National Rural landless Labourers Employment Guarantee scheme and various Programmes through 10 Point and 20 Point Programmes initiated by Prime Minister Indra Gandhi and the Rajiv Gandhi. Houses were built for Dalits and Adhiwasis and insisted to get the fair wages with the combination of grains and cash component. Drinking water facilities in every hamlets , roads , electricity, Biogas plants,work shed, community hall were constructed with quality due to the co operation of the People. I conducted training programmes for Panchayat Ward members who were elected among 100 adults to be representatives in Panchayat . In feed back form I got the information that 78% of them had not visited Panchayat Union office located in Sivagangai town just 20 to 30 Kilo meters from their village where all the officers of Development Block were sitting and serving the villagers. I could understand the distance between the bureaucracy and people in the developmental activities and implementation of various schemes.

Hence being elected representative of one lac People and Chairman of Panchayat union with powers and machinery in hand to eradicate poverty through the anti poverty programmes I implemented with the cooperation of officers and the people. I had the opportunity to be elected as Senate Member in the Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai and served for three years as representative of Local Government elected Chairman. I registered as researcher for PhD on “Implementation of Anti Poverty Programmes and rural development”. But later on knowing that many working Professors done such research on the basis of reported data’s collected by various agencies I changed the topic with the recommendation of Guide Prof S. Subramanian ,Head of Department of Political sciences to World Trade Organisation and Poverty alleviation and end up with WTO and Legislature, Executive and Judiciary, since in the mean time I was elected as 20 lac peoples representative to Indian Parliament and wrote a book too which was published by University of Madras as 150th year celebration and released by Dr Manmohan singh then Prime Minister of India Madam Sonia Gandhi.

Having the blessing of Madam Sonia Gandhi on seeing my performance as Parliamentarian participated 163 time debates in the 13 th Lok Sabha. I was made the Whip in Parliament. As member of Parliamentary standing committee for Science and Technology and Forest and Environment and for four years in Finance Committee I could make recommendation to Indian expedition to Moon (Chandrayaan) . The entire approach of wiping out the tears of rural people all the activities will prove that I was brought up by Panchayati Raj mind .

Dr G. Palanithurai the committed solder of Gandhian Thoughts and leading light when shade of darkness set in around democracy:

One time in Lok Sabha and two terms in Rajya Sabha and seven years ( two different Government terms) as Chairman of Parliamentary Standing committee for Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice and Minister for Commerce and Industry have the impact of my experience as Chairman of Panchayat Union. I have to explain since the topic “ Development , and Grassroots Democracy” to commemorate the life long commitment of Prof G.Palanidurai, the writers have the liberty to narrate ‘experiences,contributions and reflections of persons associated with panchayat raj movement in India. Dr G Palanithurai , Director ,Chair of Rajiv Gandhi and Professor and Head of Department for Rural development and author of number books . Well known Indian authority for “Grassroots Democracy” is the real solder of Gandhian thought to fight against the Poverty in Villages and ‘leading light’ when there exists shade of darkness in democracy.

As Chairman of Parliamentary standing committee I could play main role in making laws such Right to Information Act, The Hindu Succession amendment Act making women equal to male in ancestral property, and tenancy right, Women’s reservation of seats in Assembly and Parliament Bill, Village courts Act, reform in UPSC in examinations for IAS, IFS and other civil services , High Court and Supreme Court Judge’s service conditions and salaries, reform in CBI , synergy between Tribal Justice system and of the country Laws., and many more than 50 Reports submitted to both Houses of Parliament and many of them being made as Law of Parliament ,rules and regulations of Government of India.

When I sat as Vice Chairman of the Rajya Sabha for many years I used to think how poor agriculturist’s son could adorn the chair of the second top post of the country ,Vice President of India. The answer is simple, it is the “power of democracy”, practised in India through the Constitution of India and even before that through Gram Swaraj – “Gram Rajya – Ram Rajya” in the words of Mahatma Gandhi ji, the father of Nation.

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Bank fraud – we need global standard Payment and settlement system

If the regulatory system is working with transparency at global standard (Banking fraud)it would have not happened. I gave a dissenting note when the Rajya Sabha Parliamentary select committee considered to Payment and settlement system (amendmend )bill 2014

Here’s the news professionals are talking about on LinkedIn right now. Join the conversation in the comments.

Assocham has a solution to the falling accountability at state-run banks — their privatisation. The industry body feels the government should reduce its stake to less than 50% in public sector banks if it wants to avoid a repeat of the $1.8-billion fraud at Punjab National Bank. “Senior managements of PSBs keep implementing directions from bureaucrats even for innocuous issues, which hurts risk mitigation… there is a limit the government can keep bailing them out,” Business Line quotes Assocham as saying. Data from the RBI shows PSBs have reported loan fraud cases totaling ₹61,260 crore over the last five years.

Rotomac Pen promoter Vikram Kothari has allegedly fled the country after defrauding state-run banks of ₹800 crore. The owner of the Kanpur-based company, Economic Times reports, had borrowed ₹485 crore from Union Bank of India and ₹352 crore from Allahabad Bank, in cahoots with bank officials. A year on, he has repaid neither the interest nor the principal amount, the report adds. Bank of Baroda, a member of the lending consortium, had declared Rotomac a wilful defaulter last year, but the court said it was unfair as the company had “offered assets” following the default.

Walmart is in talks to acquire more than 40% in Flipkart, Reuters reports. The US retailer is likely to buy new and existing shares in the e-commerce firm at a valuation of up to $23 billion, and due diligence for the transaction may begin next week. A Mint report said Walmart wanted a buyout, but Flipkart’s largest investor SoftBank — which invested $2.5 billion in the company last year — didn’t want to “cash out this early.” Search giant Google is also in the fray, the Mint report adds. Walmart snapped up New Jersey-headquartered e-tailer Jet.com for $3 billion last year.

The government will try to “extradite and punish” Nirav Modi, the diamond czar at the centre of the $1.77-billion fraud at Punjab National Bank. NDTV reported that Modi is staying at a plush hotel suite in New York’s Manhattan. Meanwhile, the CBI has made three arrests in the case, including that of retired PNB official Gokulnath Shetty, who is accused of sharing bank passwords with Modi’s employees and issuing scores of fraudulent Letters of Undertaking. The government also plans to probe 150 shell companies associated with Modi and his uncle Mehul Choksi. Learn more about the scam here.

India’s digital spend will more than double to $100 billion by 2020. According to a joint report by Google and Boston Consulting Group, the number of women shoppers will increase two-and-a-half times and first-time internet users will treble. E-commerce, financial services and digital media will drive the next wave of growth, the report adds. India lags the US and China when it comes to digital transactions — just one in five Indians shop online compared to four in five Americans. “The ecosystem needs to create targeted value proposition for different segments of users to drive adoption,” says Google’s Nitin Bawankule.

Idea of the Day: As AI grows increasingly sophisticated, some (including Elon Musk) have begun to fear that humankind is setting itself up to be enslaved by ultra-intelligent robotic overlords. But Harvard’s Steven Pinker tells Vox that such beliefs are based on the assumption that AI will have the same desires as humans.

“We mistakenly think that intelligence and the drive to dominate are the same thing. But we have these desires because we’re products of evolution. An artificial intelligence will not have evolved in this way, and there’s no reason to assume it will share the desire to dominate or maximize its power.”

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